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中考英语牛津版阅读理解实战演练Section3科学小品篇(含答案)

来源:深圳英语网 2011-10-12 11:27:45

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摘要:阅读理解材料浩如烟海,中考英语复习,时间短,任务重。为了能让同学们脱离题海,更加省时省力地提高自己的阅读理解能力,我们特意选编了一些题材新颖、质量上乘的阅读材料。这些材料内容丰富,趣味性强,无论是在设计上,还是在难度上,都与中考英语试题相当。“会当凌绝顶,一览众山小”。完成这些短文及题目之后,再做中考阅读理解题,就一定能驾轻就熟,游刃有余。(答案在第2页)

    阅读理解材料浩如烟海,中考英语复习,时间短,任务重。为了能让同学们脱离题海,更加省时省力地提高自己的阅读理解能力,我们特意选编了一些题材新颖、质量上乘的阅读材料。这些材料内容丰富,趣味性强,无论是在设计上,还是在难度上,都与中考英语试题相当。“会当凌绝顶,一览众山小”。完成这些短文及题目之后,再做中考阅读理解题,就一定能驾轻就熟,游刃有余。  (答案在第2页)

  Section III 科学小品篇

  Passage 23

  Researchers (研究者) have announced (宣布) the result of two studies on the health effects of the drug aspirin (阿斯匹林). One study shows aspirin can sharply reduce the chance that a healthy, older man will suffer from a heart attack (心脏病).

  The study offered two new results from earlier findings. It said taking one aspirin pill every other day helped only healthy men over the age of fifty. It also said aspirin gave the greatest protection against heart attacks to men with low blood cholesterol (胆固醇) levels.

  Earlier in the United States began a major aspirin study in the early 1980s. It included 22,000 healthy men doctors. All were between the ages of forty and eighty-four. More than 11,000 of the doctors took a harmless pill that contained no drug. The men did not know which kind of pill they were taking.

  The doctors who took aspirin suffered 44% fewer heart attacks than those taking the harmless pill. 139 men who took aspirin suffered from heart attacks. Ten of them died. 239 men who did not take aspirin suffered from heart attacks. Twenty-six of them died.

  The researchers said the doctors’ study provides clear proof that taking aspirin can prevent a first heart attack in healthy, older men. They said, however, the result does not mean every man over the age of fifty should take aspirin. They said aspirin couldn’t help men who do not eat healthy foods, who smoke cigarettes and who are fat. The researchers said men who think they would be helped by taking aspirin should talk with their doctors first.

  1.The passage tells us that the new use of aspirin is ______.

  A.to treat heart disease   B. to reduce pain while one suffers from a heart attack

  C. to help old people to be more healthy  D. to reduce the chance of a heart attack in old men

  2.Aspirin can help those who ______.

  A work as doctors B. are under 40 years old

  C. are fat and smoke cigarettes D. are older and healthy

  3.At last the researchers advised us to take aspirin ______.

  A.with care B. as much as we like   C. every day D. only considering the age

  4.From the experiment we can conclude that about _____ of people who suffered from heart attacks without aspirin died.

  A. 7% B. 11% C. 19% D. 44%

  Passage 24

  It seems to be strange to you there is a blind spot (盲点)on the eyes. Here is an interesting experiment (实验) that can make something disappear, when one eye is open.

  Make a card about the size of a postcard and write two English letters L and R on it, L on the left and R on the right. First, hold the card about 80 cm away and you see both the letters. Then close your right eye and look at the letter R only with your left eye. And now, as you move the card slowly towards you, you’ll find the letter L disappearing. But if you move the card nearer to your face, the letter will be seen again. Now do the same experiment with your left eye closed, you’ll find the letter R disappearing.

  Why does the letter disappear? It is because there is a blind spot on the eye. When the image (影像) of the letter falls on the blind spot, it won’t be seen. That is why either of the letters disappears.

  1.The writer of the passage thinks that _____ there is a blind spot on the eye.

  A. few people know B. no one knows C. most people know D. all the people know

  2. The word “disappear” in the passage means ________ in Chinese.

  A. 驱散 B. 消散 C. 消失 D. 遗失

  3. You fail to see the letter L in the experiment because ___________.

  A. your eyes are poor B. its image falls on the blind spot

  D. your left eye is not open C. you move it close to your eye

  4. In which order (顺序) should you do the experiment?

  ①Hold the card ②Move the card nearer ③Close your right eye

  ④Write two English letters ⑤Look at the letter R ⑥Make a card

  A. ④⑥①②③⑤ B. ①③⑥④⑤② C. ⑥①④③②⑤ D. ⑥④①③⑤②

  5. The passage mainly (主要) tells us _______.

  A. how to find the blind spot B. an interesting experiment

  C. where the blind spot is D. there is blind spot on the eye

  Passage 25

  Different weather makes people feel different. It influences (影响) health, intelligence (智力) and feelings.

  In August, it is very hot and wet in the southern part of the United States. People there have heart trouble and other kinds of health problems during this month. In the Northeast and the Middle West, it is very hot at some times and every cold at other times. People in these states have more heart trouble after the weather changes in February or March.

  The weather can also influence intelligence. For example, in a 1983 report by scientists, IQ (智商) of a group students were very high when a very strong wind came, but after the strong wind, their IQ was 10% below. The wind can help people have more intelligence. Very hot weather, on the other hand (另一方面), can make it lower. Students in many schools of the United States often get worse on exams in the hot months of the year (July and August).

  Weather also has a strong influence on people’s feelings. Winter may be a bad time for thin people. They usually feel cold during these months. They might feel unhappy during cold weather. But fat people may have a hard time in hot summer. At about 18C, people become stronger.

  Low air pressure (气压) may make people forgetful. People leave more bags on buses and in shops on low-pressure days. There are a “good weather” for word and health. People feel best at a temperature of about 18 centigrade (摄氏度).

  Are you feeling sad, tired, forgetful, or unhappy today? It may be the weather’s problem.

  1.____ can have a bad effect (作用) on health.

  A. Hot and wet weather B. Good weather   C. Warm weather D. High intelligence

  2.People may have more intelligence when _____ comes.

  A. a rain B. very hot weather   C. a strong wind D. low air pressure

  3.Low air pressure may make people _______.

  A. forgetful B. sad C. angry D. tired

  4.In “good weather” of 18 centigrade, _______.

  A. people are very forgetful B. people can’t do their work well

  C. thin people feel cold D. people are in better health

  5.The writer wants to tell us that _______.

  A.hot and cold weather influences all people in the same way

  B.weather influences people’s lives   C.IQ never changes during weather changes

  D.There is a good kind of weather for people’s work and health

  Passage 26

  Now satellites are helping to forecast(预报)the weather. They are in space, and they can reach any part of the world. The satellites take pictures of the atmosphere (大气), because this is where the weather forms (形成). They send these pictures to the weather stations. So meteorologists (气象学家) can see the weather of any part of the world. From the pictures, the scientists can often say how the weather will change.

  Today, nearly five hundred weather stations in sixty countries receive satellite pictures.When they receive new pictures, the meteorologists compare them with earlier ones. Perhaps they may find that the clouds have changed during the last few hours. This may mean that the weather on the ground may soon change, too. In their next weather forecast, the meteorologists can say this.

  So the weather satellites are a great help to the meteorologists. Before satellites were invented, the scientists could forecast the weather for about 24or 48 hours. Now they can make good forecasts for three or five days. Soon, perhaps, they may be able to forecast the weather for a week or more ahead (提前).

  1.Satellites travel __________.

  A. in space B. above space C. above the ground D. in the atmosphere

  2.Why do we use the weather satellites to take pictures of the atmosphere?Because _______.

  A. clouds form there B. the weather forms there

  C. the weather satellites can do it easily D. the pictures can forecast the weather

  3.Meteorologists forecast the weather _______.

  A.without studying satellite pictures   B. before they receive satellite pictures

  C. when they have received satellite pictures

  D. after they have compared the new satellite pictures with the earlier ones

  4.Maybe we'll soon be able to forecast the weather for _________.

  A. one day B. two days  C. five days D. seven days or even longer

  5.The main idea of this passage is that satellites are now used in __________.

  A. taking pictures of the earth B. receiving pictures of the atmosphere

  C. weather forecasting D. doing other work in many ways

  Passage 27

  Paragraph 1

  Scientists have learned a lot about the kinds of people need. They say that there are several kinds of food that people should eat every day, they are: (1) green and yellow vegetables of all kinds; (2) citrus (柑桔) fruits and tomatoes; (3) potatoes and other fruits and vegetables; 94) meat of all kinds, fish and eggs; (5) milk and foods made from milk; (6) bread or cereal (谷类), rice is also in this kind of food; (7) butter, or something like butter.

  Paragraph 2

  People in different countries and different places of the world eat different kinds of things. Foods are cooked and eaten in many different kinds of ways. People in different countries eat at different times of the day. In some places people eat once or twice a day; in other countries people eat three or four times a day. Scientists say that none of the differences is really important. It doesn’t matter whether foods are eaten raw or cooked, canned (罐装的) or frozen (冷冻的). It doesn’t matter if a person eats dinner at 4 o’clock in the afternoon or at eleven o’clock at night. The important thing is what you eat every day.

  Paragraph 3

  There are two problems, then, in feeding the large number of people on the earth. The first is to find some way to feed the world’s population so that no one is hungry. The second is to make sure that people everywhere have the right kinds of food to make them grow to be strong and healthy.

  1.According to(依据)the scientists,which of the following groups of food is the healthiest for your lunch?

  A. Chicken, apples, cereal and cabbages.   B. Potatoes, carrots, rice and bread.

  C. Oranges, bananas, fish and tomatoes.   D. Beef, pork, fish and milk,

  2.It is important for people to eat ______.

  A.three times a day   B. dinner at twelve o'clock

  C. cooked food all the time  D. something from each of the seven kinds of food every day

  3.People in different countries and different places of the world ____ .

  A. have the right kinds of food to eat B. cook their food in the same way

  C. have their meals at the same time D. eat food in different ways

  4.Which of the following is not true?

  A. People in some places don't have enough to eat. B. There are too many people in the world.

  C. One of the problems is that no one is hungry.

  D. The scientists are trying to make people grow to be strong and healthy.

  5.If there is Paragraph (段落) 4, what do you think is going to be talked about?

  A. When people eat their lunch.  B. What to do with the two problems.

  C. How to cook food in different ways.  D. Why people eat different kinds of food.

  Passage 28

  What do Napoleon, Clinton and Wang Nan have in common? They are all left-handed.

  Today, about 15% of the number of people is left-handed. But why are people left-handed? The answer is the way the brain (大脑) works. The brain has two halves---- the right half controls the left side of the body, and the left controls the right side of the body. So right-handed people have a strong left-brain and left-handed people have a strong right brain.

  The two halves of he brain are about the same size. But each side controls different things. The left side controls language, math and logical (逻辑的). When you remember new words, or when you put things in order, you use your left side.

  The right side of the brain controls your love of art, colors and music. It is also good at recognizing (识别) faces.

  This does not mean that all artists are left-handed and all accountants (会计) are right-handed. Some right-handers have a strong right brain, and some left-handers have a strong left-brain.

  1.The phrase “in common” in the first sentence means ______.

  A. the same B. different C. strange D. interesting

  2.People who are right-handed or left-handed are mostly decided by ______.

  A. their parents B. their minds  C. the way the brain works D. the way the head works

  3.Each side of the brain ______.

  A. likes music and math B. controls different things C. controls the same thing D. has two halves

  4.When you are singing, you are using your _____.

  A. logic thinking B. heart C. left brain D. right brain

  Passage 29

  Before you use your new microwave oven, read the instructions carefully. Each oven has its own control panel (控制板), but most microwave ovens operate in a similar way. Look at the control panel shown here. It shows the time at the top of the panel. Under the time are the different functions(功能).You can press (按) Defrost, Cook, Clock, or Power. You can also warm food by pressing Reheat Times.

  Under the functions are the numbers. These numbers are shown as on telephone, from zero through nine. You can press the numbers to set the cooking time in seconds or minutes. Under the numbers are Start and Clear.

  A microwave oven will automatically (自动的) cook on HIGH (power level 10) unless you enter a lower power level. Suppose (假设)you want to cook a serving of broccoli for two minutes and forty-five seconds on MEDIUM power (level 5). First, press the numbers 2, 4 and 5 (two minutes, forty-five seconds). Then press Power. Next, press the number 5. At last, press Start to begin cooking. If you make a mistake, press Clear. This will clear the display and allow you to start over again.

  

  阅读短文,然后根据其内容回答下列问题。  

  1.What is the main idea of the passage?

  ______________________________

  2.What functions does a microwave oven have?

  ______________________________

  3.How would you cook green beans for two minutes and thirty seconds at power level 7?

  ___________________________________________________________________

  4.What is the last function you press each time you set the controls?

  ______________________________

  5.What does “Clear” allow you to do when you press it?

  ______________________________  

  Passage 30

  No one knows why we sleep, but it’s certain that we need to. People who are prevented from sleeping begin to suffer obvious effects after a few days—they think less clearly, and they fall asleep during the working hours.

  There are no rules about sleep. Generally speaking, grown-ups sleep about 7 and a half hours each night and probably more than 60 percent get between seven and eight hours. But perhaps eight percent are quite happy with 5 hours or less, and four percent or so find that they want ten hours or more. If you feel all right, you’re probably getting enough sleep. The important thing is not to worry how much other people get—their needs may be different. Exercise doesn’t seem to increase the need for sleep—office workers, for example, sleep for about as long as people doing physically active work.

  Children sleep more than grown-ups—perhaps 14 to 18 hours soon after birth, going down to grown-up levels by early teenage (青少年). Sleep patterns also tend (倾向) to be different in the old people, who may sleep less at night than they did when younger, find sleep getting more broken, and often make it a rule to sleep during the daytime.

  1.Some people can’t think clearly because _______.

  A. they have bad memory B. they feel sleepy during the working hours

  C. they don’t have enough sleep D. they are certain to be kept from going to bed

  2.Whether you have got enough sleep is judged (判断) by _______.

  A.how many hours you have slept B. how many hours you need to sleep

  C. if you do exercise and physical work D. if you feel fresh energetic

  3.According to the passage, a boy of 14 years old sleeps _____.

  A.as long hours as a grown-up  B.much longer hours than a grown-up

  C.for 14 hours each night  D.for less than 8 hours each night

  4.Which of the following is True?

  A.All grown-ups much have at least eight-hour sleep.

  B.Most of grown-ups sleep for seven or eight hours.

  C.Quite a few people need only 5 hours or less for them to sleep.

  D.No grown-ups sleep more than ten hours.

  Passage 31

  Some people want to be sent into space after their death, others want to lie deep under the sea. But most people want to go into the freezer (冷藏库). These are believers in cryogenics (低温冷冻学).

  Now some diseases can't be cured, but they may be cured sometime in the future. So some people hope that their bodies can be frozen after they die. When a cure is found,warm up his or her body, bring it back to life and take the cure. Once the body is frozen, it is kept in liquid nitrogen(液态氮)at a temperature of 328 degrees below zero.

  Now around a thousand people are going to take cryogenic treatment (处理), though most scientists say it won't work. If we freeze huge creatures(生物)like humans, every one of their cells(细胞)will be broken. Can they be brought back to life in the future?

  阅读短文,然后根据其内容回答下列问题。

  1.Where do most people hope that their bodies are kept after their death?

  ___________________________________

  2.Why do they want the world to keep their bodies well?

  3.How do scientists usually keep a dead man's body?

  4.How many people are going to take cryogenic treatment after they die?

  5.Can a man who died of cancer come back to life in the future if his body is frozen?Why?



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